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a1988). Darwinian theory which defines evolutions the product of natural selection cannot address or even recognize planetary evolution because there is no replicating or reproducing population of competing Earth systems on which natural selection can act (Dawkins, 1982) the Earth evolves as a population of one.
   The problem of the population of one is most striking at the level of planetary evolution, but it is far more general than that. Whether in the rumen of an herbivore or within a larger ecosystem such as a forrest ecosystem undergoing succession, selection is seen to occur within systems which are recognized as populations of one. The same is true in the evolution of culture which is seen to occur through the agglomeration of autonomous chiefdoms into nation states, into empires, and at present into, minimally, a global economy. The dynamics of all of these systems, each and every one of which is an internal component process of the planetary system as a whole, is beyond the ontology and explanatory framework of evolution following from natural selection. Natural selection is seen to be a process internal to the evolution of a population of one, and it cannot explain the systems to which it is internal.
This suggests the need for a physical selection principle (since if selection is not between replicating or reproducing entities cannot, by definition, be biological), a principle that would account for the selection of macro (ordered) from micro (disordered) modes, for spontaneously ordered systems, and from which the fecundity principle could be derived.

The First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics

The first and second laws of thermodynamics are not ordinary laws of physics. Because the first law, the law of energy conservation, in effect, unifies all real-world processes, it is thus a law on which all other laws depend. In more technical terms, it expresses the time-translation symmetry of the laws of physics themselves. With respect to the second law, Eddington (1929) has argued

that it holds the supreme position among all the laws of nature because it not only governs the ordinary laws of physics but the first law as well. If the first law expresses the underlying symmetry principle of the natural world (that which remains the same) the second law expresses the broken symmetry (that which changes). It is with the second law that a basic nomological understanding of end-directedness, and time itself, the ordinary experience of then and now, of the flow of things, came into the world. The search for a conserved quantity and active principle is found as early as the work of Thales and the Milesian physicists (c. 630-524 B.C.) and is thus co-existent with the beginnings of recorded science, although it is Heraclitus (c. 536 B.C.) with his insistence on the relation between persistence and change who could well be argued to hold the top position among the earliest progenitors of the field that would become thermodynamics. Of modern scholars it was Leibniz who first argued that there must be something which is conserved (later the first law) and something which changes (later the second law).

The Classical Statements of the First and Second Laws

Following the work of Davy and Rumford, the first law was first formulated by Mayer, then Joule, and later Helmoholtz in the first half of the nineteenth century with various demonstrations of the equivalence of heat and other forms of energy. The law was completed in this century with Einstein's demonstration that matter is also a form of energy. The first law says that (a) all real-world processes consist of transformations of one form of energy into another (e.g., mechanical, chemical, or electrical energy or energy in the form of heat), and that (b) the total amount of energy in all real-world transformations always remains the same or is conserved (energy is neither created nor destroyed). Among the many profound implications of the first law is the impossibility of Cartesian dualism and all its descendent variants which entail the interaction of a world split into one part governed by a conservation principle and the

 THERMODYNAMICS, EVOLUTION, AND BEHAVIOR - 220

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